From the history of Chinese traditional medicine
The history of Chinese traditional medicine goes back many centuries. In ancient times there were developed various methods of treatment of Chinese medicine.
In the East, in the area of modern Shandong province, has been treated with needles of stone; the West had used herbs; on the location of the modern province of Hebei — cautery; in the centre, in the area of today’s Hubei province, used a metal needle and the site of the present Henan province massage.
More than two millennia ago in China was published the treatise “nei-Ching”. It provides a synthesis of clinical experience accumulated by generations of Chinese physicians, outlines the theory of the art of healing, the basics of medicinal therapy, acupuncture and moxibustion.
Already in ancient times, Chinese physicians used in surgical operations for anaesthesia. To achieve full anesthesia was used narcotic drugs. And surgeon and a specialist in acupuncture, Hua tuo, who lived in the II century used for anesthesia tea blend “Mafeisan”.
Up to our days retained its importance the labour Janina Zhang (150-219), “consideration of the various diseases from exposure to cold”, is devoted to the diagnosis.
The famous doctor bian Qiao (VI—V or V—IV centuries BC) improved the technique of how to determine the pulse.
From ancient sources it is known that narodnozabavni China, Korea and other countries already in 1 — 2 centuries was widely used acupressure. To the VIII century it was recognized and official medicine.
In General, there is no other method of treatment that has such a long history and such a high efficiency.
Special attention in China has always been given prevention of diseases, the so-called preventive medicine . For example, in the first Chapter of the book “Nazin” discusses how people can prevent disease and keep health.
Already during the Tang dynasty (618-907) the Chinese physicians were aware that leprosy is an infectious disease, and sick people were isolated from the healthy.
In China was discovered a vaccination against smallpox — and for the first time used here approximately in XI century, the serum took smallpox and injected healthy people as a preventive measure. In the XVI century in Europe and Asia was widely known Chinese treatise “New book on vaccination against smallpox”.
In the XVI century, an eminent physician and pharmacologist Li shizen published pharmaceutical compendium “Fundamentals of pharmacology”, later translated into many Oriental and European languages — Korean, Japanese, Latin, Russian, English and French — and has had a huge influence on the development of modern medicine.
More than 6000 books on Chinese medicine came to us, which give information about different treatment methods and which up to the present time are reference manuals.
The conservatism of Chinese society, its isolation from other countries and the desire of officials to control all aspects of society eventually led to the decline of traditional medicine. In addition, in modern times it was almost impossible to carry out long-term training, to pay due attention to the preparation of drugs and medical procedures.
After the XVII century, new medical not already created, future doctors learn the same ancient texts, which resulted in a decrease in their professional level.
In the nineteenth century China fell into a semi-colonial dependence on European countries. Here there are Western officials, merchants, missionaries… the Country and met with the European medicine. Treatment methods European gave not as stable, but faster results, furthermore, did not have to spend decades on the individual training of doctors. Aristocrats often gave preference to European medicine and the traditional treatment was considered primitive and backward. And after the revolution of 1911 oriented to the Western way of life of the Republican government even pursued doctors — followers of ancient Chinese medicine.
Only in 50-ies of XX century the traditional medicine of China started to revive and received worldwide recognition.
Nowadays in China there is a trend towards the integration of traditional and modern (Western) medical techniques. The value of the discoveries and experience of Chinese doctors to modern medicine is invaluable. Methods of diagnosis and treatment, which have reached us from ancient times, actively and successfully used to this day. In the world of traditional Chinese medicine is becoming more popular because of its efficiency and availability.