The history of the use of medicinal plants
The people have been treated with herbs. The plants as a folk medicines have always been the main component of any recipe, not counting vegetables, fruits and bee products. Thanks to the archaeologists, it became known that even ancient people experienced the miraculous properties of plants.
The Egyptians wrote on papyrus formulations of herbal drugs and special properties of herbs that had come to them from Assyria and Babylon. Scientists have deciphered the manuscripts, and it became known that Egypt used different grinding, ointments and decoctions with complex composition, as well as aromatic oils, resins and balsams.
In China in the treatment of various diseases has been successfully used ginseng and antlers. In a book called “Fundamentals of pharmacology” were given the characteristics of about 1500 vegetable drugs. This scientific work was still in use in many countries.
The Indians always gave the religious significance of medicine. They thought that almost all known diseases occur due to “spoilage of juices of the body”. Therefore, the treatment was appropriate:
• Means, cause vomiting,
In India was used in about 750 medicines from plants. In Rome also used Indian drugs on osnovatelei. Many plants used in India, is now successfully used in Europe. In Buddhist medicine, believed that practically everything we see around us, is medicine.
In his “canons of medical science”, the famous Arab scholar book contained accurate descriptions of properties more than nine hundred plants, and recipes for medicinal purposes.
The first encyclopedia of medicine amounted to the ancient Roman physician Celsus. In it he gathered all the wisdom accumulated over the centuries. Celsus described the plants, their properties and methods of use in the treatment of ailments. Celsus said the reason for many diseases the changes in the internal organs.
Later, the Roman Dioscorides has created a volume collection, which contained descriptions of fifty of the plants used at that time in medicine.
Claudius Galen, physician and pharmacist, was 200 works, of which there are two of the most significant. He introduced into practice the use of such traditional medicines, as tinctures and extracts of plants.
Among the first was printed, the herbalist, written by Apuleius.
Subsequently, the herbals of Galen, of Dioscorides and Apuleius translated into many European languages. Their counterparts in Europe occurred much later and contained a lot of information, described in Greek and Latin treatises.
Herbal medicine in the Scythian and Ancient Rus
In Russia also attached great importance to herbal medicine, and a major role in healing was given to the women.
Visited Scythia Hippocrates praised the miraculous properties of many herbs there growing. Forest described the Scythian herb that helped to cope successfully with injuries. Archaeologists have found that ancient Slavs used the many local herbs, among which were poisonous.
With the formation of Kievan Rus emerged a new profession called leccy. These people joined various folk methods of treatment and knowledge in the field of medicine, which came from the depth of centuries. At about this same time he began to organize the first medical school family type.
After Russia from pagan became Christian, and gradually began to develop a writing system, the first medical book. To our days have survived the medical book “Masi”, which was written by the granddaughter of Vladimir Monomakh. This is the first known medical book in Europe, which amounted to woman.
Began to appear on the book with the description of diseases. So, the book of an Armenian doctor Grigoris contained a list of diseases and parasitic infectious origin. The author described the clinical manifestations of diseases, and also paid attention to methods of treatment using medicinal plants.
In Ancient Russia when the treatment was applied the fresh plant, applied to wounds or drinking the juice from them. Also popular folk remedy was honey, which was taken in undiluted form and in mixtures.
The development of herbal medicine in Russia
Soon Russia began to publish the print edition herbalists, including translations of European. Also found its application and handwritten translations of herbalists, such as “Cool vineyard” with a summary of the main properties of plants.
Peter I attached great importance to the collection of herbs. With his light hand in the large cities appeared the pharmacy and the so-called Apothecary gardens. Harvesting herbs did all over Russia and also in Ukraine and Belarus. First laboratory.
In the medico-surgical Academy in St. Petersburg he continued his study of plants for pharmaceutical and medical purposes. But at the same time came the development of chemistry since the creation of chemicals, due to which the scope of application of herbs is a little narrowed.
Numerous experiments on the use of plants in medicine has led to the fact that a herbal medicine, has developed a pharmacy. Conducted work designed to systematize the harvesting of useful plants and created new medical drugs are plant-based.